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Database components and their purpose

 A database is a set of data and information stored in an orderly, without duplication, and in an integrated manner with each other, according to a mathematical relationship managed by the database management system, and the database consists of one or more tables, and the table consists of one or more records, and the record consists of a field or More, for example, the record for a particular employee consists of several fields, the job number, the name of the employee, the job level, the date of receiving work, the salary, and other data, and through the use of the database's search engine, the search for information will be facilitated. The database is used in several fields, whether at the level of individuals and personal matters, or in the field of financial accounting systems, or in the areas of import and export, or storage, sales and purchases, or in the field of production and others.


Database components:

 Databases consist of four basic components:

 data:

Where databases are available on small and personal computers, as well as on large machines and servers (servers) with high specifications, and therefore the efficiency of the system depends on the ability and capabilities of the computer entity to a large extent, as personal computers provide a database for one user, while servers provide Database of a number of users.


 hardware:

Where databases are kept on magnetic disks, they are a form of dense tape units as backup units (BACK UP) to store data for emergency conditions.


 Programs:

It is a middleware between the data stored in files on top of the disks, and between the database users, and the most prominent of these programs is the database manager program (DBMS), which is a very complex and expensive program, and it needs a specialist in databases with high technical skills and knowledge to deal with it , Because it takes control of the automatic and program elements of the base in cooperation with the operating system.


Database users:

They fall into three categories: program planners, who write programs and use the capabilities of the database, database specialists, who are in charge of maintaining and operating the database, and users of databases, and they are the ones who deal with the database through the terminals.



Characteristics of databases:

 Among the advantages that can be enjoyed when using the database system are:

  1.  The ability to add new files, add new data to existing files, update them, or delete them.
  2.  Retrieve data from files that make up the database.
  3.  Check bookmark on files.
  4.  Imposing security and confidentiality restrictions on some important data.
  5.  Programs can be modified without modifying the data and vice versa.
  6.  The ability to create new data from the data on the files.
  7.  Creating reports based on updated and comprehensive information, which gives a general idea of ​​the existing data and thus facilitates making sound decisions.


Database types:

  1. Hierarchical database.
  2.  A network database.
  3.  A shared relationship database.


Objective of the database:

The main objective of the database is to highlight the method of organizing data without special applications; By designing the data on the condition that it is not repetitive, and the ability to recover, modify, and introduce any additions to it without any problems, and resort to using several methods to reach three levels of abstraction or normalization models, which are intended to bring the data in terms of its composition to the taxonomic nature. Databases have taken an important place in the flow chart of facilities and institutions operations instead of the file system, due to the ease of storage and availability of space. As it does not need a large storage space, in addition to its ease of use, and data retrieval in it through the language (sql).

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